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Table of Contents
Year : 2019  |  Volume : 33  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 45-47

Maker activities in a psychiatric day care center

1 Department of Cultural Heritage Conservation, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Douliu City, Yun-Lin County, Taiwan
2 Department of Psychiatry, National Taiwan University Hospital Yunlin Branch, Douliu City, Yun-Lin County, Taiwan
3 Institute of Education, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Date of Submission14-Sep-2018
Date of Decision25-Oct-2018
Date of Acceptance21-Dec-2018
Date of Web Publication28-Mar-2019

Correspondence Address:
Shih- Ming Li
No. 1, University Road, Tainan 701
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/TPSY.TPSY_8_19

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Objective: Many Maker empirical studies have been published in Taiwan educational field, and the Maker has also been applied to health-care field. The purpose of this study was to apply the Maker activities to patients at a psychiatric day care center. Methods: We included 10 schizophrenia patients in an eight-week Maker program at a psychiatric day care center. Being shown to have good reliability and validity, the clinical symptom checklist was used to assess patients' symptoms of schizophrenia. We also assess the effect between the scores between pre- and posttests. Results: The mean score of the clinical symptom checklist with standard deviation in the pretest was 3.75 ± 1.83 and that in a posttest was 0.50 ± 0.54. Using the Wilcoxon sum rank test, the difference between two tests in knitting Maker activity showed a significant decrease during the eight-week program (Z = −2.32, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Based on those findings, we suggest that the knitting Maker activity program can be used for patients in the psychiatric day care center to reduce the distress and to enhance their well-being.

Keywords: Checklist, clinical symptom, do-it-yourself, maker, schizophrenia

How to cite this article:
Wang CY, Zheng LZ, Wu CY, Li SM. Maker activities in a psychiatric day care center. Taiwan J Psychiatry 2019;33:45-7

How to cite this URL:
Wang CY, Zheng LZ, Wu CY, Li SM. Maker activities in a psychiatric day care center. Taiwan J Psychiatry [serial online] 2019 [cited 2023 Jan 28];33:45-7. Available from: http://www.e-tjp.org/text.asp?2019/33/1/45/255147

  Introduction Top

The Maker movement, a participatory model of innovation, is a technology-focus do-it-yourself (DIY) movement, that is stressed on “learning by doing,” empowering individuals to become Makers or creators of physical solutions to problems[1]. In 2012, a Maker Faire was held in Taipei, Taiwan, for the first time, and in 2014, the Taiwan Ministry of Education began to promote the Maker movement. Recently, five Maker empirical studies have been published in the Taiwan educational field[2], and the Maker activity has also applied to health-care field, like MakerNurse[1].

In Taiwan, the Maker movement has been promoted in the education field – including private school, high school, and higher education. The core values of Maker activity are the achievement of practice, the experience learning, and creative entrepreneurship. Within the Maker practice, people are thinking through brain, doing by hand, creating one's idea, and enhancing pleasant mood[3]. Four components of Maker practice model are as followed:

  • playing: The playful activities can enhance one's motivation and keep one's passion on the task
  • doing: People conduct the products DIY from the materials and the achievement, self-efficacy, and self-esteem can be enhanced during the process
  • thinking: In the Maker practice, people can learn the problem-solving skill and think with their brain.
  • being creative: The key component of Maker activity is the creative. With the one's creativity, the DIY can transform to the Maker activity.

Everyone can be a Maker practioner when we are cooking for family or engaging in garden activities[4]. Collier and Wayment surveyed 465 college students to understand their experience of Maker activities, including domestic arts, art, and craft and found that Maker activities can improve one's mood, socialize with friends, and maintain their focus on the present[5].

To know the applicability of Maker activities in patients with schizophrenia, we did a study on schizophrenic patients at a psychiatric day hospital center. In this study, we indented to know patients' changes of symptoms of schizophrenia before and after their participation in Maker activity.

  Methods Top

Study participants

The study participants included 10 patients being diagnosed with schizophrenia at the psychiatric day care center of National Taiwan Hospital Yunlin Branch. The study protocol was approved by the Institutional review board, with the requirement of obtaining informed consents from all the study participants.

Maker program

An 8-week knitting Maker activity was given once a week, 2 h in each session. The four Maker's components – playing, doing, thinking, and being creative – were included in the program [Table 1]. Needles have the characteristics that the fabric stays on the needles in each row during production, which can help the learners to check the production situation and react with the teacher. After discussion with the staff, we decided to weave the Maker movement using a 9.0 mm thick-sized needle with a 5 mm thick-sized yarn. In considering the speed of beginners' learning, we also took it into account in the tool management and safety concerns. Therefore, we used a larger tool and recycled every time.
Table 1: Knitting Maker program

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Study procedures

We arranged less knitting activities for schizophrenia patients [Table 2], and an eight-week knitting Maker activity was conducted. After receiving institutional review board's approval, we recruited ten patients, and eight of them completed the eight-week Maker activity program with the knitting spherical animal toy. The four elements of Maker[3] were used in a weekly course to maintain the spirit of the Maker activities to distinguish from those the traditional occupational activities. Eight patients had the intention for joining the advance group, and six patients want to be a skillful Maker practitioner on knitting. The average age of those participants was 44 ± 8.95 (mean ± standard deviation [SD]) years, and the average length of illness was 22 ± 5.39 years.
Table 2: Top five Maker activities

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The clinical symptom checklist

We used the clinical symptom checklist to assess the symptoms of schizophrenia by a clinical psychologist. We assessed four dimensions of symptoms (positive symptoms, negative symptoms, behavioral problems, and emotional problems) with dichotomous scale. Three samples were selected for inter-rater reliability by two senior clinical psychologists and one occupational therapist, and a kappa of 100% was found. In addition, 15 samples were selected for criterion-related validity with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)[6]. The correlation coefficient for these samples was 0.63, indicating well BPRS-related validity.

Statistical analysis

The descriptive statistics was used to present the data of mean clinical symptoms ± SD, based on the scores of clinical symptom checklist. With Wilcoxon rank-sum test, we tested the differences of symptom severity between the results of pre- and posttests.

All study data were computed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 24.0 for Windows (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The differences between groups were considered significant if the P values were less than 0.05.

  Results Top

[Table 2] shows the differences in the symptoms checklist in patients before and after their participating in Maker activities – mood repair, social interaction, and present focus. The mean score ± SD of the clinical symptom checklist in pretest was 3.75 ± 1.83 and that of a posttest was 0.50 ± 0.54 (Z = −2.32, p < 0.05).

  Discussion Top

Study patients were significantly improved during the 8-week program in clinical symptom checklist 3.75 ± 1.83 versus 0.50 ± 0.54 from pre- to posttest, respectively (Z = −2.32, p < 0.05). We suggest that ten patients got their clinical symptoms improved after their participating in the 8-week Maker activities.

Within Maker concept, people engage with their brains and hands, creating their own ideas for pleasure[2],[4],[5]. In our 8-week knitting Maker program, the therapist empowered the schizophrenia patients' self-efficacy and promoted them as the Maker. With the group psychotherapy skill, linkage and positive feedback used to enhance the four elements of Maker[3]. Based on the study results, we suggest that the knitting Maker activity can repair one's negative emotion, enhance social interaction, and keep attention and that the schizophrenia patients in this study also showed the effect from participating in Maker activities on the clinical symptoms.

Study limitations

The readers are warned not to extrapolate or over-interprete the study results because this study has two major limitations:

  • We just recruited only ten patients with schizophrenia to participate this Maker activity
  • All ten patients were from one psychiatric day care center only.


Based on those findings in this study, we suggest that the knitting Maker activity program can be used for patients in the psychiatric day care center to reduce the distress and enhance their well-being. Further studies with bigger sample sizes and randomization of sampling from various psychiatric facilities are needed to strengthen this study results.

  Acknowledgment Top

The data collection was assisted by clinical psychologists, Yu-Fang Yu and Tien-Ming Chung.

  Financial Support and Sponsorship Top

The funding of this study was supported by National Taiwan University Hospital.

  Conflicts of Interest Top

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Awori J, Lee JM: A maker movement for health: a new paradigm for health innovation. JAMA Pediatr 2017; 171: 107-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
Yeh JY, Cheng YM, Luo XZ, et al.: The analysis of the experimental studies for maker education in Taiwan. Taiwan Educ Rev Mon (Taipei) 2018; 7: 180-9.  Back to cited text no. 2
Chang YS: STEAM maker cross-domain integration, practice 12-year compulsory education law passed. Taiwan Educ Rev Mon (Taipei) 2018; 7: 1-5.  Back to cited text no. 3
Dougherty D: The maker movement. Innovation 2012; 7: 1-14.  Back to cited text no. 4
Collier AF, Wayment HA: Psychological benefits of the “maker” or do-it-yourself movement in young adults: a pathway towards subject well-being. J Happiness Stud 2018; 19: 1217-39.  Back to cited text no. 5
Wang YT, Yang YK, Chen KC, et al.: The validity of the five-item brief psychiatric symptom rating scale among general hospital inpatients. Taiwan J Psychiatry (Taipei) 2008; 22: 316-21.  Back to cited text no. 6


  [Table 1], [Table 2]


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